Contrary to what you may have heard, toilets don't just sit on the floor. They are also not bolted to the floor. They are secured to a large, round disk called a flange, that is attached to the 3" or 4" drain under the toilet and rests on the floor's surface. Flanges can be made of several materials, including PVC, ABS plastic, brass or steel, depending on the age of the home. Each of these materials offers its own pros and cons, but almost all new houses are built with PVC toilet flanges. The toilet is secured to the flange via one long bolt on each side of the toilet's base, often made of brass or a hard nylon. The toilet is often caulked around the base following installation in order to provide additional stability as well as a clean, finished look.
Flanges, as with every other piece of plumbing material, are not indestructible. Older brass flanges were secured to the toilet's cast iron drain with a lead stub, with was pounded around the edges of the flange to hold it in place. After years of sitting on, and lightly moving the toilet, the flanges begin to come loose from the lead, causing the toilet to loosen from the floor. Leaks often occur when this happens. We will replace your brass flange with a new, more secure PVC piece, which we will adapt to the exiting lead stub (if it is in good enough shape). If the lead stub is not sturdy enough to accept the new flange, we will replace the drain stub under the toilet with PVC as well to give to new flange more stability.
Older PVC and ABS plastic flanges can dry up and crack with age, and sometimes need replacement. We service these as well, replacing or sometimes repairing the flange to fresh working order, as well as re-installing your toilet in the process, and testing all areas for leaks upon completion. And as always, all the work is fully warranted.